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Lead in Drinking Water Incidents
 
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1.What are the latest water sampling test results on lead content?

Water sampling test results
  Location     Samples with lead content exceeding the standard
  Kai Ching Estate in Kowloon Bay     7  
  Hostel, Wu Yee Sun College of The Chinese University of Hong Kong     0  
  Kowloon City Government Offices     0  
  Cheung Sha Wan Estate and Cheung Sha Wan Estate Ancillary Facilities Block     0  
  Lung Yat Estate and Lung Yat Community Hall in Tuen Mun     0  
  Shui Chuen O Estate Phase 1 (Ching Chuen House, Long Chuen House, Yan Chuen House, Hei Chuen House) in Sha Tin     0  
  Kwai Luen Estate Phase 2 (Luen Yat House, LuenYuet House) in Kwai Chung     5  
  Wing Cheong Estate in Sham Shui Po     1  
  Kwai Luen Estate Phase 1 (Luen Yan House, Luen Hei House) in Kwai Chung     0  
  Fung Wo Estate in Sha Tin     0  
  Hung Fuk Estate Phases 1 and 2 (Hung Foon House, Hung Yan House, Hung Hei House, Hung Lok House, Hung Fuk Shopping Centre and Ancillary Facilities Block) in Yuen Long     0  
  Hung Fuk Estate Phase 3 (Hung Long House, Hung Yat House, Hung Yuet House, Hung Cheong House, Hung Shing House)     0  
  Mei Tin Estate (Mei Chuen House) and free standing block in Sha Tin     0  
  Shek Lei (II) Estate (Shek Foon House) in Kwai Chung     0  
  Mei Tung Estate (Mei Tak House) in Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Cheung Lung Wai Estate, Cheung Lung Lane and Cheung Lung Wai Estate Ancillary Facilities Block in Sheung Shui     0  
  Yee Ming Estate in Tseung Kwan O                   0  
  Tak Long Estate, carpark block and kindergarten in Kowloon City      0  
  Ching Long Shopping Mall in Kowloon City     0  
  Lower Ngau Tau Kok Estate Phase 1 (Kwai Leung House, Kwai Yuet House, Kwai Hin House, Kwai Sun House, Kwai Fai House)     6  
  Mei Tung Estate (Mei Yan House) in Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Shek Kip Mei Estate Phase 5 (Mei Yick House, Mei Yin House, Mei Sang House, Mei Shing House) in Sham Shui Po     0  
  Un Chau Estate Phase 5 (Un Mun House, Un Wai House and Un Yat House) and Un Him House (i.e. Ancillary Facilities Block) in Sham Shui Po     0  
  Choi Fook Estate (Choi Foon House) in Kwun Tong     0  
  Choi Tak Estate (Choi Yan House and Choi Yee House) in Kwun Tong     0  
  Domain and Yau Tong Community Hall in Yau Tong     0  
  Shek Kip Mei Estate Phase 2 (Mei Wui House, Mei Leong House) in Sham Shui Po     5  
  Hung Hom Estate Phase 2 (Hung Yat House, Hung Yan House, Hung Yiu House)     16  
  Tung Wui Estate (Wui Sum House, Wui Yan House) in Wong Tai Sin     4  
  Choi Tak Estate (Choi Chun House, Choi King House, Choi Leung House, Choi Yin House) and Choi Tak Shopping Centre in Kwun Tong     0  
  Shatin Pass Estate (Wo Tin House, Shun Tin House) in Sha Tin     0  
  Yan On Estate (Yan Hei House, Yan Yuet House and Yan Chung House)  in Sha Tin     5  
  Yau Lai Estate Phase 5 (Cheuk Lai House, Yung Lai House) and carpark block in Kwun Tong     0  
  Yau Lai Estate Phase 6 (i.e. Yau Lai Shopping Centre)     0  
  Shin Ming Estate (Shin Chi House, Shin Lai House) in Sai Kung     0  
  Tin Ching Estate Tin Ching Amenity and Community Building in Yuen Long     0  
  Chai Wan Estate (Wan Poon House, Wan Ying House)     0  
  Choi Tak Estate (Choi Shing House, Choi Shun House) in Kwun Tong     0  
  Choi Fook Estate (Choi Lok House, Choi Sin House, Choi Hay House) in Kwun Tong     13  
  Upper Ngau Tau Kok Estate Phases 2 and 3 (Sheung Hing House, Sheung Shing House, Sheung Fu House, Sheung Wing House, Sheung Hong House and Sheung Tai House), Upper Ngau Tau Kok Shopping Centre and Kwun Tong Methodist Social Service Ngau Tau Kok Youth Integrated Service Centre     0  
  Tin Ching Estate Phase 3 (Ching Moon House, ChingHei House and Ching Yuet House) in Yuen Long     0  
  Un Chau Estate Phases 2 and 4 (Un Lok House, Un Nga House, Un Chi House, Un Hei House and Un Kin House) in Sham Shui Po     19  
  Shek Kip Mei Estate Phase 1 (Mei Yue House, Mei Ying House) in Sham Shui Po     0  
  Sau Mau Ping (South) Estate (Sau Ho House, Sau Wong House)     0  
  Sau Mau Ping (South) Estate (Sau Mei House, Sau Tak House and Sau Sin House)     0  
  Upper Wong Tai Sin Estate (Wing Sin House)     0  
  Yau Lai Estate Phase 4 (Tsui Lai House, Hong Lai House and Yan Lai House) in Kwun tong     0  
  Yau Lai Estate Phase 3 (Ying Lai House, Fung Lai House) in Kwun Tong     0  
  Shek Mun Estate Phase 1 (Kin Shek House, Mei Shek House) and supermarket in Sha Tin     0  
  Lam Tin Estate (Lam Fai House, Lam Tai House, Lam Bik House and Lam Wai House)     0  
  Mei Tin Estate Phase 3 (Mei Lok House, Mei Mun House and Mei Ting House) and Mei Tin Community Hall in Sha Tin       0  
  Tin Ching Estate Phase 1 (Ching Pik House, Ching Hoi House) and Tin Ching Community Hall in Yuen Long     0  
  Tin Ching Estate Phase 2 (Ching Choi House, Ching Wan House), Tin Ching Shopping Centre and Tin Ching Ancillary Facilities Block in Yuen Long     0  
  Choi Ying Estate Phase 1 (Ying Fu House, Ying On House) in Kwun Tong     0  
  Choi Ying Estate Phase 2 (Ying Hong House, Ying Lok House, Ying Shun House) in Kwun Tong     0  
  Choi Ying Estate Phase 3 (i.e. Choi Ying Place) in Kwun Tong     0  
  Ching Ho Estate Phase 1 (Ching Chung House, Ching Hin House, Ching Yu House) in Sheung Shui            10  
  Ching Ho Estate Phase 1 in Sheung Shui (i.e. Ching Ho Shopping Centre)     0  
  Ching Ho Estate Phase 2 (Ching Ping House, Ching Yun House) in Sheung Shui     0  
  Tung Tau Community Centre  at Tung Wui Estate in Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Ancillary Facilities Block, Shek Kip Mei Estate Phase 2           0  
  Lower Ngau Tau Kok Estate Plaza of Lower Ngau Tau Kok Estate Phase 1            0  
  Yan On Shopping Centre at Yan On Estate in Sha Tin       0  
  Oi Tung Estate (Oi Yat House) in Shau Kei Wan     0  
  Shek Pai Wan Phase 2 (Pik Shan House, Pik Yuen House, Pik Wai House, Pik Luk House)     0  
  Lei Yue Mun Phase 2 (Lei Lung House)     0  
  Shek Lei (II) Estate (Shek Wai House, Shek Yi House)     0  
  Ching Ho Phase 3 (Ching Chak House, Ching Long House, Ching Chiu House) in Sheung Shui     0  
  Pak Kwai House and Hop Kwai House of Kwai Chung Estate     0  
  Mei Tin Estate Phases 1 and 2 (Mei Sau House, Mei Lai House, Mei King House, Mei Chi House) and Mei Tin Shopping Centre in Sha Tin     0  
  Hoi Lai Estate Phase 3 (i.e. Hoi Lai Shopping Centre) Hoi Shui House of Hoi Lai Estate Phase 4 in Sham Shui Po     0  
  Chui Kwai House, Pik Kwai House and Luk Kwai House of Kwai Chung Estate Phase 3     0  
  Hin Yiu House of Hin Yiu Estate in Sha Tin     0  
  Lai Shek House of Shek Yam Estate Phase 5 in Kwai Chung     0  
  Shing Wo House of Kwai Shing (East) Estate in Kwai Chung     0  
  Lok Foon House of Tsz Lok Estate in Sha Tin     0  
  Lok Tsui House of Lok Fu Estate in Sha Tin     0  
  Mei Yat House, Mun Yat House, Kui Yat House of Yat Tung (II) Estate in Tung Chung     0  
  Chui Shue House, Wing Shue House and Lei Muk Shue Shopping Centre of Lei Muk Shue Estate Phase 3     0  
  Hong Shue House, Lok Shue House and Kin Shue House of Lei Muk Shue Estate Phase 4     0  
  Bik Lai House, Sau Lai House, Yi Lai House, Nga Lai House, Chi Lai House and Yat Lai House of Yau Lai Estate Phase 1 in Kwun Tong     0  
  Pik Long House, Pik Yuet House, Pik Ngan House, Pik Fai House, Shek Pai Wan Shopping Centre and Carpark of Shek Pai Wan Estate Phase 1     0  
  Kwai Chung Shopping Centre at Kwai Chung Estate Phase 3     0  
  Kwai Chung Estate Phase 4 (Chin Kwai House and Tsz Kwai House)     0  
  Kwai Chung Estate Phase 5 (Hiu Kwai House, Ying Kwai House, Yuk Kwai House, Nga Kwai House and Yat Kwai House)     0  
  Tsui Ping (South) Estate in Kwun Tong     0  
  Lee On Estate in Sha Tin     0  
  Butterfly Estate in Tuen Mun     0  
  Choi Fai Estate in Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Sai Wan Estate     0  
  Choi Yuen Estate in Sheung Shui     0  
  Tin Yan Estate in Yuen Long     0  
  Tsz Lok Estate in Tsz Wan Shan     0  
  Oi Tung Estate in Shau Kei Wan     0  
  Kwai Shing (East) Estate in Kwai Chung     0  
  Kin Ming Estate in Tseung Kwan O     0  
  Tin Yuet Estate in Yuen Long     0  
  Po Tat Estate in Kwun Tong     0  
  Lei Yue Mun Estate in Kwun Tong     0  
  Tin Heng Estate in Yuen Long     0  
  Tin Chak Estate in Yuen Long     0  
  Sau Mau Ping Estate in Kwun Tong     0  
  Fu Tai Estate in Tuen Mun     0  
  Wang Tau Hom Estate in Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Ap Lei Chau Estate in Aberdeen     0  
  Lei Muk Shue (I) Estate in Tsuen Wan     0  
  Chun Shek Estate in Sha Tin     0  
  Pak Tin Estate in Sham Shui Po     0  
  Ka Fuk Estate in Fanling     0  
  On Yam Estate in Kwai Chung     0  
  Sheung Tak Estate in Tseung Kwan O     0  
  Cheung Hang Estate in Tsing Yi     0  
  Tsz Man Estate in Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Wah Sum Estate in Fanling     0  
  Shek Lei (1) Estate in Kwai Chung     0  
  Tin Wan Estate in Aberdeen     0  
  Ko Yee Estate in Kwun Tong     0  
  Wan Hon Estate in Kwun Tong     0  
  Sheung Lok Estate in Ho Man Tin     0  
  Tsz Ching Estate in Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Chung On Estate in Sha Tin     0  
  Ho Man Tin Estate in Ho Man Tin     0  
  Ko Cheung Court (public housing section) in Kwun Tong     0  
  Upper Wong Tai Sin Estate in Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Yiu Tung Estate in Shau Kei Wan     0  
  Kwai Fong Estate in Kwai Chung     0  
  Tin Shui (II) Estate, Tin Shui Wai     0  
  Tai Wo Hau Estate, Kwai Chung     0  
  Cheung Hong Estate, Tsing Yi     0  
  Hau Tak Estate, Tseung Kwan O     0  
  Shun Tin Estate, Kwun Tong     0  
  Wan Tsui Estate, Chai Wan     0  
  Sun Chui Estate, Sha Tin     0  
  Mei Lam Estate, Sha Tin     0  
  Kwong Fuk Estate, Tai Po     0  
  Shek Kip Mei Estate, Sham Shui Po     0  
  Lung Hang Estate, Sha Tin     0  
  Lei Muk Shue (II) Estate, Tsuen Wan     0  
  Hing Wah (I) Estate, Chai Wan     0  
  Shek Wai Kok Estate, Tsuen Wan     0  
  Oi Man Estate, Ho Man Tin     0  
  Yau Oi Estate, Tuen Mun     0  
  Lai Kok Estate, Sham Shui Po     0  
  Sam Shing Estate, Tuen Mun     0  
  Kwai Shing West Estate, Kwai Chung     0  
  Lek Yuen Estate, Sha Tin     0  
  Lai King Estate, Kwai Chung     0  
  Kai Yip Estate, Kwun Tong     0  
  Un Chau Estate, Sham Shui Po     0  
  Siu Sai Wan Estate, Chai Wan     0  
  Hing Man Estate, Chai Wan     0  
  Chuk Yuen (N) Estate, Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Cheung Ching Estate, Tsing Yi     0  
  Sha Kok Estate, Sha Tin     0  
  Tai Yuen Estate, Tai Po     0  
  Choi Wan Estate, Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Cheung Wang Estate, Tsing Yi     0  
  Shui Pin Wai Estate, Yuen Long     0  
  Ping Shek Estate, Kwun Tong     0  
  Ma Tai Wai Estate, Kowloon City     0  
  Shek Lei (II) Estate, Kwai Chung     0  
  Tsz Hong Estate ,Tsz Wan Shan     0  
  Wah Lai Estate, Lai Chi Kok     0  
  Kwai Chung Estate     0  
  Ping Tin Estate, Lam Tin     0  
  Lok Fu Estate, Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Shek Yam East Estate, Kwai Chung     0  
  Wah Fu (II) Estate, Pok Fu Lam     0  
  Fu Shan Estate, Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Lai Yiu Estate, Kwai Chung     0  
  Tin Yiu 2 Estate, Tin Shui Wai     0  
  Hing Tung Estate, Shau Kei Wan     0  
  Tin Shui (II) Estate, Tin Shui Wai     0  
  Wu King Estate, Tuen Mun     0  
  Tin Yiu (I) Estate, Tin Shui Wai     0  
  Tin Yiu (II) Estate, Tin Shui Wai     0  
  Wah Fu (I) Estate, Pok Fu Lam     0  
  Mei Tung Estate, Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Yat Tung (I) Estate, Tung Chung     0  
  On Ting Estate, Tuen Mun     0  
  Tai Hing Estate, Tuen Mun     0  
  Wo Che Estate, Sha Tin     0  
  Shun On Estate, Kwun Tong     0  
  Choi Hung Estate, Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Lung Tin Estate, Tai O     0  
  On Tin Estate, Lam Tin     0  
  Yau Tong Estate, Yau Tong     0  
  Cheung Shan Estate, Tsuen Wan     0  
  Fuk Loi Estate, Tsuen Wan     0  
  Hoi Lai Estate, Sham Shui Po     0  
  Tai Hang Tung Estate, Sham Shui Po     0  
  Lower Wong Tai Sin (II) Estate, Wong Tai Sin     0  
  Ma Hang Estate, Stanley     0  
  Shek Yam Estate, Kwai Chung     0  
  Tin Wah Estate, Tin Shui Wai     0  
  Upper Ngau Tau Kok Estate, Ngau Tau Kok     0  
  Lok Wah (North) Estate, Ngau Tau Kok     0  
  Yat Tung Estate, Tung Chung     0  
  Fu Cheong Estate, Sham Shui Po     0  
  Tin Yat Estate     0  
  High Prosperity Terrace     0  
  Easeful Court     0  
  Shek Lei (II) Interim Housing     0  
  Hong Tung Estate     0  
  Fu Tung Estate     0  
  Ming Tak Estate     0  
  Shun Lee Estate     0  
  Grandeur Terrace     0  
  Po Tin Estate     0  
  Kam Peng Estate     0  
  Ngan Wan Estate     0  
  Lok Wah (South) Estate     0  
  Yue Wan Estate     0  
  Nga Ning Court     0  
  Tsui Lok Estate     0  
  Kai Tin Estate     0  
  Lai On Estate     0  
  Kwong Tin Estate     0  
  Cheung Kwai Estate     0  
  Chak On Estate     0  
  Sun Tin Wai Estate     0  
  Wo Lok Estate     0  
  Hung Hom Estate     0  
  Choi Wan (II) Estate     0  
  Fortune Estate     0  
  Nam Shan Estate     0  
  Model Housing Estate     0  
  Hing Wah (II) Estate     0  
  Long Bin Interim Housing     0  

Note:As at 19 November 2015

2.What are the test results of water samples taken from kindergartens and schools?
For test results of water samples taken from kindergartens and schools, please visit the website of Education Bureau:
www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/news009/Test_Results_of_Water_Samples_en.pdf
Note:As at 16 December 2015

3.What are the latest water quality testing parameters required by the Water Supplies Department (WSD) for a newly constructed inside service?
The parameters are pH value, colour, turbidity, conductivity, free residual chlorine, E. coli, total coliforms, heterotrophic plate count, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel.  Lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel are newly added items.

4.What are the respective acceptable concentration levels of the above four newly added heavy metals in water specified by the Government and the World Health Organization (WHO)?
HKSAR has adopted the levels in WHO’s Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality published in 2011, which is tabulated below.

      Quantity per litre of water (micrograms)
  Lead   ≦10
  Cadmium   ≦3
  Chromium   ≦50
  Nickel   ≦70

5.What standard does the WSD follow when taking water samples for testing?
The WSD has made reference to the international standard ISO5667 (Part 5) when formulating the procedures of sampling for testing the quality of normal drinking water to ensure that the samples taken are representative.

6.Why not take samples of stagnant water in pipes?
If samples are taken in the morning without flushing the pipes beforehand, the samples can only represent the quality of water stagnant in the pipes for some time, but cannot represent the quality of drinking water for the whole day.  Therefore, it is not suitable to compare such water quality data with the WHO’s drinking water guideline value for lead for long-term consumption, i.e. no more than 10 micrograms per litre.  Systematic errors will also arise from this sampling method due to variations in times of water stagnant in the pipes, which may affect the comparability of results.

7.Should members of the public conduct water sampling tests themselves?
If members of the public wish to know the lead content in normal drinking water, they can employ accredited laboratories to take water samples and carry out the tests.  For information about these laboratories, please visit the website of the Innovation and Technology Commission:
www.itc.gov.hk/en/quality/hkas/doc/Testing_of_lead_and_other_heavy_metals_in_water.pdf.

Lead is a common element in the environment, including the soil, and airborne dust and particles.  Testing the compliance of lead content in drinking water with the standard stipulated in WHO’s Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality published in 2011, i.e. 10 micrograms per litre, will be approximately equivalent to testing one drop of water out of 40 standard size swimming pools.  If water samples are taken without following the procedures properly, the reliability of test results can be undermined easily.

8.What should members of the public do if the lead content of water samples taken according to the proper procedures is found to be non-compliant with the WHO standard after testing by accredited laboratories?
The members of the public should act immediately according to the health advice given by the Centre for Health Protection.  For details, please refer to the website: www.chp.gov.hk/en/view_content/40398.html.
The members of the public should also discuss with their estate/building management offices, owners or owners’ committees to engage relevant professionals, including licensed plumbers, building services engineers or building surveyors, etc., to inspect the internal water supply systems and identify the source of problem of the excess lead content and to take appropriate remedial measures.

9.Can members of the public install water filters for removing lead in drinking water?
Members of the public can install water filters which certified by the American NSF 53 Standard for removal of lead.  Such filters can effectively reduce the lead content in water.  As the water filter will remove residual chlorine along with lead from the tap water making it favourable for bacterial growth, the filtered water should be boiled before consumption.  Unfiltered tap water can still be used for other domestic purposes, e.g. washing vegetables, washing dishes, bathing, etc. Hot water should not be filtered. It will affect the performance of the filter and water quality.

If members of the public install faucet type or countertop type filters with no stop valve downstream for removal of lead, the installation work will be regarded as a minor modification of the inside service.  In this case, users should strictly follow manufacturer’s instructions on use of the water filter and properly maintain the water filter as specified by the manufacturer, and establish the frequency of replacement of its filter cartridge according the daily water consumption through the filter to ensure its proper performance and lead-reducing effectiveness.  

If the consumers want to install water filters other than the above types (e.g. the in-line filter), they should employ licensed plumbers for installation according to the Waterworks Regulations and submit applications to the WSD through the licensed plumbers.  Details are available at the WSD’s website: www.wsd.gov.hk/en/faqs/water_quality/index.html#waterpurifier.

10.Where can the list of local licensed plumbers be found?
The licensed plumber directory is available at the WSD’s website:
https://www.esd.wsd.gov.hk/esd/aws/licensedPlumberDirectory/init.do?pageFlag=1&USER_LANG=LANG_EN.

11.What are the Quality Water Supply Schemes for Buildings?
The WSD has launched the Quality Water Supply Schemes for Buildings - Fresh Water and Flushing Water with an aim to encourage building owners and property managers to maintain their plumbing systems properly.  For details of the schemes, please visit the WSD’s website:
www.wsd.gov.hk/en/customer_services_and_water_bills/application_for_licence_certificate/qwrsbfwsw/index.html. WSD has invited Advisory Committee on Water Resources and Quality of Water Supplies to review and study whether to include heavy metal parameters for the Scheme.

12.What is the number of the WSD’s Customer Services Hotline?
2824 5000.

 


Health effect of lead

1.What is Lead?

Lead is a naturally occurring heavy metal which usually presents in very small amounts in the environment. Lead and its compounds may be found in products such as batteries, lead-based paints, lead-containing ceramics, lead solder and leaded petrol.

2.What is the Health Effect of Lead?
Long term exposure to lead, which when accumulated in large amounts in the body, may result in anaemia, increased blood pressure, brain and kidney damage. The World Health Organisation Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality has set a provisional guideline value of not more than 10 micrograms per litre for lead meaning that lifetime consumption of water complying with the guidelines does not represent any significant risk to health. 
For further details, please refer to the Health factsheet: Incident of Lead in Drinking Water .

3.Any health Advice for the use of Drinking Water in Kai Ching Estate and Kwai Luen Estate (Phase 2)?
Before the problem of lead content in drinking water is settled, residents of Kai Ching Estate and Kwai Luen Estate (Phase 2) are recommended to take precautionary measures which include flushing faucets individually before using water for drinking or cooking. Infants, young children under six years of age, pregnant women and lactating mothers should use alternative sources of drinking water.

4.Has any hotline been set up to provide health advice?
The Department of Health has set up a hotline (2125 1122) to answer questions on the effect of lead on health as well as to provide health tips, the hotline will operate from 9am to 6pm between Monday and Friday and from 9am to 1pm on Saturday.

5.What are the reference values for blood lead levels and the care plan formulated?
Persons below 18-year-old, pregnant women and lactating mothers
Whole blood lead level (microgram/dL) Health risks Care plan
<5
  • Normal level;
  • No significant health risk;
  • No follow-up required.
  • DH will inform the residents concerned by phone and by mail about the results
5-44
  • Borderline raised level;
  • Potential health risk;
  • Health evaluation and follow-up required.
  • DH will perform exposure assessment;
  • HA will arrange health evaluation and follow-up;
  • Blood lead level will be monitored
>44
  • Significantly raised level;
  • Risk of lead poisoning;
  • Need medical assessment and follow-up.
  • DH will perform exposure assessment;
  • HA will arrange medical assessment and follow-up;
  • Blood lead level will be monitored.

Adults
Whole blood lead level (microgram/dL) Health risks Care plan
<10
  • Normal level;
  • No significant health risk;
  • No follow-up required.
  • DH will inform the residents concerned by phone and by mail about the results
10-50
  • Borderline raised level;
  • Potential health risk;
  • Health evaluation and follow-up required.
  • DH will perform exposure assessment;
  • HA will arrange health evaluation and follow-up;
  • Blood lead level will be monitored
>50
  • Significantly raised level;
  • Risk of lead poisoning;
  • Need medical assessment and follow-up.
  • DH will perform exposure assessment;
  • HA will arrange medical assessment and follow-up;
  • Blood lead level will be monitored.